Герои меча и магии: реальные истоки «Игры престолов»

Автор: Елена Иванова

Нет никакой статистики по поводу того, сколько в Благовещенске поклонников суперпопулярного сериала «Игра престолов» и фантастической саги Джорджа Р. Мартина. Но нас достаточно, чтобы в городе провели уникальную лекцию о корнях «Игры престолов» в реальной истории Средневековья.

Как-то раз кандидат исторических наук, доцент кафедры отечественной и всеобщей истории Тихоокеанского государственного университета Марина Романова на досуге начала смотреть самое известное телешоу канала HBO. Она была поражена тем, как много отсылок к реальным историческим событиям и персонажам можно найти в этой фэнтези-истории. Рассудив, что такая основа для лекции может действительно заинтересовать студентов, она сделала большой шаг к увлекательной истории — изучила вопрос и теперь раскрывает его слушателям.

— Джордж Мартин довольно неплохо разбирается в истории, — сделала вывод лектор.

Итак, что же общего у вселенной «Игры престолов» («Песни льда и огня») с настоящей историей человечества? Где нашлось место правде? За полтора часа мы узнали много нового.

Место и время

В сюжете «Игры престолов» нашли отражение три исторических пласта: немного античности, раннее Средневековье и позднее Средневековье, причем античная линия в основном скрыта в происхождении и жизни Дейенерис.

Карта Вестероса поразительно похожа на карту Британских островов с VI по IX века нашей эры, бывших епархией из семи королевств.

Противостоянию Ланнистеров и Старков в реальной истории довольно прозрачно соответствует такое эпохальное и длительное событие, как Война Алой и Белой розы в Англии, которая продолжалась с 1455 по 1485 годы. В течение тридцати лет за власть боролись сторонники двух ветвей династии Плантагенетов — Ланкастеры и Йорки (созвучие фамилий совсем не случайное, верно?).

Битва пяти королей за Железный трон также очень сильно напоминает Столетнюю войну между Францией и Англией — кошмарный период в жизни двух стран, когда престол делили все, кому не лень, государства тонули в крови и разбоях, а люди погибали без счета.

Знаменитая Кровавая свадьба, так запавшая в душу зрителям сериала, вдохновлена Черным обедом, произошедшем в Шотландии в 1440 году. 16-летнего Уильяма Дугласа, главу могущественного шотландского клана, и его брата Дэвида пригласили в гости к 10-летнему королю Якову II вероломные взрослые. После веселья и пира в один момент началась резня, в которой лишились голов доверчивые гости. Впрочем, в Средневековье такое случалось не раз и считалось вполне нормальным.

Кровавая свадьба в «Игре престолов»
Черный обед — историческое событие, произошедшее в 1440 году в Эдинбурге

Битва на Черноводной похожа на осаду арабами Константинополя в 717-718 годах. Страшные битвы, победа в которых досталась византийцам во многом благодаря «греческому огню» — воспламеняющейся смеси, которую невозможно было потушить водой. Точный рецепт неизвестен, но основой жидкости стали нефть, селитра и масло. В кипящем от пламени море погиб не только вымышленный флот Станниса Баратеона, но и реальные персидские корабли.

Гигантские ступенчатые пирамиды в Миэрине, в одной из которых некоторое время жила Дейенерис, — это не что иное как зиккураты, строившиеся в древнем Вавилоне. Туники, украшения и прически господ-гискаров тоже наводят на мысли о жителях этого античного государства.

Железные острова, родина Грейджоев, сочетают в себе аллюзии на викингов и пиратские республики на Барбадосе. Обычаи выбора вождя схожи с тингом скандинавов — кто выжил, тот и правит. Привычка жить разбоем и налетами также похожи на образ жизни викингов, однако соблюдение корабельной субординации и морская романтика близка пиратам, которых отличала неплохая дисциплина внутри республик.

Стена, ограждающая север от одичалых, а позднее — от белых ходоков, также списана с великих памятников человеческой амбициозности. Адрианов вал, остатки которого до сих пор тянутся по территории Англии, в 122 году нашей эры построили римляне. 128-километровая стена была призвана охранять их от «варваров» (в наши дни — шотландцы). Нельзя отрицать и впечатление от Великой китайской стены — эпического защитного сооружения, которое в реальности не принесло никакой пользы.

Стена в «Игре престолов»

Адрианов вал

Жизнь замечательных людей

Прототипы самых ярких персонажей «ИП» также списаны со знаковых исторических личностей. И надо отметить, их истории подчас даже более фантастичны по количеству приключений.

Роберт Баратеон — это, судя по всему, Генрих VI Ланкастер. Современники считали его человеком, не способным нормально править средневековым государством из-за нелюбви к интригам и войнам. Гораздо больший политический вес имела его жена, с которой отчасти списан образ Серсеи Ланнистер.

Именно Серсея Ланнистер похожа на Маргариту Анжуйскую, которая после замужества заняла очень активную политическую позицию и практически правила за своего мужа, которого считали безумным. Именно она своим опрометчивым решением положила начало тридцатилетней Войне роз.

Эддард (Нед) Старк похож на Ричарда Йорка — умного и амбициозного дворянина, который посмел претендовать на трон. Именно из-за решения Маргариты Анжуйской исключить его из совета начался конфликт, а за ним и Война Алой и Белой розы. Несмотря на статус регента и доверие короля, герцог Йоркский был обезглавлен.

Дейенерис Таргариен также имеет свои корни, хоть и в совсем другой эпохе. Массагетская царица-воительница Томирис управляла войском скифского кочевого народа и прославилась в роли полководца. Ее называли дочерью Великого змея и Великого дракона. Отомстила персидскому царю Киру за смерть своего сына: голову великого правителя лично опустила в мешок с кровью.

Джоффри Баратеон — не кто иной, как Эдуард Вестминстерский, сын Маргариты Анжуйской и Генриха VI (но есть теории, что не совсем — у королевы хватало любовников). Чудовищно жестокий и кровожадный подросток любил мучить животных, а затем и людей. Умер, правда, не от яда, но совсем юным — в 17 лет.

История Джона Сноу сродни истории Генриха VII Тюдора: он также не имел права на престол и имел сомнительное происхождение, даже жил в эмиграции на птичьих правах. Прославился на поле боя, победил соперника Ричарда III и заслужил право зваться королем. Именно он положил конец Войне роз, а правление его называли мирным.

Прообразом Тириона Ланнистера мог быть Ричард III Йорк, человек большого ума и хитрости, упорный и энергичный. Он родился слабым и хилым ребенком, поэтому никто не верил в его будущее. Будучи талантливым политиком, все равно не смог погасить все мятежи. Стал жертвой измены и героически погиб в бою.

Джейме Ланнистер имеет свой прототип: легендарный немецкий рыцарь Гёц Железная рука фон Берлихинген потерял конечность в бою при осаде города Ландсгута. Руку заменили искусным железным протезом, Гёц продолжил сражаться под разными знаменами, завоевав себе полумистическую репутацию.

Теон Грейджой по манере поведения напоминает герцога Кларенса — Джорджа Плантагенета. Он сыграл важную роль в Войне Алой и Белой розы, однако запомнился как перебежчик, был казнен за измену. В качестве казни было выбрано утопление в бочке с мальвазией (вином).

Беррик Дондаррион имеет прямую связь с легендарным Робином Гудом. Дворянин из обедневшего рода, решивший добиваться справедливости своим путем и хранящий верность своему покойному вассалу. Благородный разбойник, который не лезет в интриги.

Торрес из Мира очень похож на монаха Тука из ближайшего окружения Робина Гуда. Священнослужитель, который любит выпить и имеет сомнительные моральные устои, но зато отлично справляется в бою.

Вероломного Мизинца сравнивают с лордом Уориком по прозвищу Делатель королей. Богатейший и влиятельнейший человек в Англии периода Войны роз. Был ключевой фигурой в войне, в течение которой он помог свергнуть короля Генриха VI из династии Ланкастеров в пользу короля Эдуарда IV из династии Йорков.

Еще несколько фактов

Дотракийцы — племя, собранное Мартином из ассоциаций с монголами, гуннами, фракийцами, скифами и даже северо-американскими индейцами. Кочевники, славившиеся агрессией, завоеватели, способные покорить десятки государств, вызывали ужас у современников.

Кхал Дрого, в свою очередь, степенью своей отваги напоминает Чингисхана.

Арья Старк по роду занятий и образованию может соотноситься с «рыцарями Горы» или, иначе говоря, ассасинами (хашшашинами) — воинами, которых набирали из сирот и воспитывали в отдельном замке как талантливых наемных убийц. Эти ребята владели всеми видами оружия, умели сливаться с окружением и разбирались в ядах.

Одичалые, как ни странно, имеют больше общего не с народами Севера, а коренными маори.

Почитание Владыки света Рглора похоже на древнюю религию зороастризма, которая также делила силы влияния на свет и тьму.

Даже лютоволки имеют своих прародителей: это предки обычных волков, Canis Dirus или Dire Wolf. Называемые также «ужасными», эти волки достигали в длину 1,7-1,8 метров и весили по 70 килограммов. Со временем более мелкие и шустрые сородичи потеснили их и заменили.

В Благовещенске авторская лекция Марии Романовой прошла в рамках хабаровского образовательного проекта Persona Grata, известного своим свежим и нестандартным подходом к выбору и раскрытию тем. Для слушателей в АмГУ все прошло бесплатно благодаря поддержке компании «МегаФон».

 
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